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CARAMEL was pleased to present a cybersecurity workshop in the scope of ITSC 2020.

As part of the activities of the IEEE ITSC 2020, a workshop on cyber security was offered on September 20th as a joint effort between two major H2020 EU-funded projects: the nIoVe (A Novel Adaptive Cybersecurity Framework for the Internet-of-Vehicles) and CARAMEL (Artificial Intelligence-based Cybersecurity for Connected and Automated Vehicles)

The CyberSec workshop organized by ATHENA Research & Innovation Center, CENTRE FOR RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY-HELLAS (CERTH), KIOS, and University Cyprus, presented current innovative activities and R&D activities in public and private sectors in the area of cybersecurity.

The slides of the showcased presentations can be found at the following link.

  • A novel Adaptive Cybersecurity Framework for the Internet-of-Vehicles: The nIoVe approach
  • Protecting the new generation of cars against cybercriminals
  • Privacy in Cooperative Intelligent Transport Systems (C-ITS): threats, impact and assessment
  • Risk Analysis and Security Assurance in Connected Vehicles: The SAFERtec and 2CeVau approach
  • Security and safety for the Internet-of-Things

Protecting the new generation of cars against cybercriminals


CARAMEL was pleased to contribute to the EWGT2020, with three papers for the session Cybersecurity of Connected and Automated Vehicles.

As part of this year’s activities of the EWGT conference carried in Papus, Cyprus from September 16-18. CARAMEL presented the following 3 papers, product of the ongoing research activities:

  • Addressing Cybersecurity in the Next Generation Mobility Ecosystem with CARAMEL
  • A benchmarking framework for cyber-attacks on autonomous vehicles
  • Impact of False Data Injection attacks on Decentralized Electric Vehicle Charging Protocols

Addressing Cybersecurity in the Next Generation Mobility Ecosystem with CARAMEL

The proliferation of next generation mobility, promotes the use of autonomous cars, connected vehicles and electromobility. It creates novel attack surfaces for high impact cyberattacks affecting the society. Addressing the cybersecurity challenges introduced by modern vehicles requires a proactive and multi-faceted approach combining techniques originating from various domains of ICT. Emerging technologies such as 5G, LiDAR, novel in-vehicle and roadside sensors and smart charging, used in modern cars, introduce new challenges and potential security gaps in the next generation mobility ecosystem. Thus, it is critical that the domain’s cybersecurity must be approached in a structured manner from a multi-domain and multi-technology perspective. The CARAMEL H2020 project aims to address the cybersecurity challenges on the pillars upon which the next generation mobility is constructed (i.e., autonomous mobility, connected mobility, electromobility). To achieve that, advanced Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Machine Learning (ML) techniques will be utilized for the identification of anomalies and the classification of incoming signals indicating a cyber-attack or a cybersecurity risk. Apart from risk detection, methods for the mitigation of the identified risks will also be continuously incorporated to the CARAMEL solution. The final goal of CARAMEL is to create an anti-hacking platform for the European automotive cybersecurity and to demonstrate its value through extensive attack and penetration scenarios. In this paper we will expand on the unique cybersecurity-relevant characteristics of the pillars upon which the CARAMEL solution is built. Next, a number of use cases emerging from such analysis will be extracted in order to form the basis upon which the CARAMEL platform will be evaluated. Finally, we will conclude with an overview of the platform’s architectural composition.

A benchmarking framework for cyber-attacks on autonomous vehicles

In this paper, a novel framework for a benchmark system for autonomous vehicles focusing on their security and reliability is proposed. Computer vision and networking technologies are improving offering solutions towards automation in connected autonomous vehicles. These systems are using sensor technologies, including vision and communication, providing information and measurements for the environment and other connected vehicles. As a result, unlike conventional vehicles, autonomous vehicles have to communicate with other vehicles as well as other external network infrastructure. However, such requirements make autonomous vulnerable to the attack. This may also motivate various types of cyber threats and attacks like traffic signs modification, GPS spoofing, and Vehicular Adhoc network distributed denial of service. Hence, this paper explores various aspects of security issues, vulnerabilities, exploitation methods and the adverse effect of them on connected autonomous vehicles and proposes a novel benchmark framework focusing on physical and communication-based attack to evaluate and assets the state- of-the-art technologies that are currently used during cyber-attack.

Impact of False Data Injection attacks on Decentralized Electric Vehicle Charging Protocols

Electric vehicles (EVs) gain great attention nowadays since the electrification of private and public transport has a great potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and mitigate oil dependency. However, the influx of a large number of electrical loads without any coordination could have adverse aects to the electrical grid. More importantly, the complexity in the coordination of a large number of EVs, pose critical challenges in ensuring overall system integrity. A typical attack found in the controllers of connected EVs is false data injection (FDI), which can be utilized to distort real energy demand and supply figures. Energy distribution requests may therefore be erroneous, which results in additional costs or more devastating hazards. The lack of a proper coordination scheme, robust to such cyber attacks could cause voltage magnitude drops and unacceptable load peaks. In this work, we study the impact of FDI attacks, on various decentralised charging protocol with reduced computational requirements. The proposed decentralised EV charging algorithms only require from each EV to solve a local problem, hence the proposed implementation require low computational resources. An extensive evaluation study highlights the strengths and weaknesses of the presented solutions which are based on iterative convex optimization solvers.

Special thanks to the organizers of this event: Research and Innovation Center of Excellence (KIOS CoE), University of Cyprus which are also members of CARAMEL’s consortium.


CARAMEL was present yesterday at the International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks with the presentation of the following papers:

ICTON-OSCto5G GNSS Location Verification in Connected and Autonomous Vehicles using In-Vehicle Multimodal Sensor Data Fusion

ICTON-OSCto5G 5G enabled cooperative localization of connected and semi-autonomous vehicles via sparse Laplacian processing


Cooperative Localization has received extensive interest from several scientific communities including robotics, optimization, signal processing and wireless communications. It is expected to become a major aspect for a number of crucial applications in the field of Connected and (Semi-) Autonomous vehicles (CAVs), such as collision avoidance/warning, cooperative adaptive cruise control, safely navigation, etc. 5G mobile networks will be the key to providing connectivity for vehicle to everything (V2X) communications, allowing CAVs to share with other entities of the network the data they collect and measure. Typical measurement models usually deployed for this problem, are absolute position information from Global Positioning Systems (GPSs), relative distance to neighbouring vehicles and relative angle or azimuth angle, from Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) or Radio Detection and Ranging (RADAR) sensors. In this paper, we provide a cooperative estimation approach that performs multi modal-fusion between interconnected vehicles. This method is based on a Graph Signal Processing tool, known as Laplacian Graph Processing, and significantly outperforms existing method both in terms of attained accuracy and computational complexity.

ICTON-CTSII Multi-radio V2X communications interoperability through a multi-access edge computing (MEC)


Nowadays, we are ready to have precommercial Cooperative Intelligent Transport Systems (C-ITS), nevertheless there exist challenging functional and security aspects that need to be addressed. One of them is the fact that, in every era, there will be several radio technologies which will be used by vehicles that need to be connected between them, therefore, the systems needs to provide interoperability services. The other critical issue is to reinforce security against attacks on localization receivers or in vehicles equipment. Most of these functions are based in a large amount of computation power, to this end, this paper presents the approach taken by H2020 CARAMEL project, using a Multi-access Edge Computing (MEC) that could provide the necessary performance assets.

All presentations can be accessed from the ICTON Conference online platform.

Until 30 September 2020


The CARAMEL project participated yesterday in the ISLVSI conference, presenting the paper ” Towards artificial-intelligence-based cybersecurity for robustifying automated driving systems against camera sensor attacks ” [1]

The conference presentation can be accessed by following the steps mentioned by the ISLVSI organizers:


CARAMEL is a European project that aims amongst others to improve and extend cyberthreat detection and mitigation techniques for automotive driving systems. This paper highlights the important role that advanced artificial intelligence and machine learning techniques can have in proactively addressing modern autonomous vehicle cybersecurity challenges and on mitigating associated safety risks when dealing with targetted attacks on a vehicle’s camera sensors. The cybersecurity solutions developed by CARAMEL are based on powerful AI tools and algorithms to combat security risks in automated driving systems and will be hosted on embedded processors and platforms. As such, it will be possible to have a specialized anti-hacking device that addresses newly introduced technological dimensions for increased robustness and cybersecurity in addition to industry needs for high speed, low latency, functional safety, light weight, low power consumption.

C. Kyrkou et al., “Towards Artificial-Intelligence-Based Cybersecurity for Robustifying Automated Driving Systems Against Camera Sensor Attacks,” 2020 IEEE Computer Society Annual Symposium on VLSI (ISVLSI), Limassol, Cyprus, 2020, pp. 476-481, doi: 10.1109/ISVLSI49217.2020.00-11.


CARAMEL was present yesterday at the European Conference on Networks and Communications with the presentation of paper
The CARAMEL project: a safe architecture for autonomous vehicles.

This work presents the CARAMEL’s approach to enhance the protection of connected mobility toward cybersecurity threats specifically for V2X communications.


The main goals of the CARAMEL project are to enhance the protection of modern vehicles against cybersecurity threats related to automated driving, smart charging of Electric Vehicles, and communication among vehicles or between vehicles and the roadside infrastructure. This work focuses on the latter and presents the CARAMEL architecture for improving the security and privacy of communication for connected and autonomous driving. The proposed architecture includes: (i) multiradio access technology capabilities, with simultaneous 802.11p and LTE-Uu support; (ii) a MEC platform, where algorithms for detecting attacks are implemented; (iii) an intelligent On-Board Unit with anti-hacking features inside the vehicle; (iv) a Public Key Infrastructure that validates in real-time the integrity of vehicle’s data transmissions. As an indicative application scenario, the interaction between the entities of the CARAMEL architecture is showcased in the case that the GPS locations used by vehicles are spoofed.

Complete paper will be uploaded soon.

Future mobility webinar

Ubiwhere one of the CARAMEL partners together with organize a series of webinars on where they discuss different topics about the Future of Mobility.

A group of specialist are invited to give a talk about the most important topics in this area. The next session of this series is focused on connected mobility and the CARAMEL’s project coordinator will be presenting information about the cybersecurity on future mobility.

Date of the event: 14 May 17:00 (GMT+1)

Recorded version can be found at: Connected Mobility 

Ubiwhere official webpage

CARAMEL is a project that is aiming to deal with modern cybersecurity gaps, through the use of advanced Artificial Intelligence techniques.

Image by Ubiwhere

CARAMEL has been registered to platform

We are pleased to announce that recently the Caramel Project has been registered in the European observatory of research and innovation in the field of cybersecurity and privacy.

This action was made as an effort to consolidate an online hub of the projects that with its work provide research and innovation activities across Europe in the field of cybersecurity.

CARAMEL project, aims to address vehicle cybersecurity through the implementation of artificial intelligence and machine learning techniques. Helping to mitigate associated safety risks.

Image by VIN JD from Pixabay

CARAMEL has been registered to ARCADE knowledge base

CARAMEL has been registered to the ARCADE Knowledge Base on Connected and Automated Driving (CAD) which is a great tool to share and exchange knowledge on innovative solutions for Connected Cooperative and Automated Mobility.

Developed as part of the Horizon 2020 Action ARCADE (Aligning Research & Innovation for Connected and Automated Driving in Europe), the Knowledge Base gathers the scattered information among a broad network of CAD stakeholders to establish a common baseline of CAD knowledge and provide a platform for a broad exchange of knowledge.

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2nd General Assembly of CARAMEL Project

The 2nd General Assembly of Caramel Project took place in Aveiro, Portugal at the Fundação Engenheiro António Pascoal from 29 – 30 January 2020. In this session, the entire CARAMEL consortium, formed by academic and industry partners as well as the Project Coordinator and Technical Manager participated reviewing the actions carried out and defining the next steps to achieve the goals of CARAMEL Project.

All three pillars of CARAMEL were discussed:

  • Autonomous cars
  • 5G connected vehicles
  • Electromobility

The action plan to address all of the aforementioned pillars were carefully discussed, achieving an excellent agreement between each partner member of the consortium.

This meeting was not only useful to address the Project goals but also to improve the work environment among all project members, through a friendly social interaction.

The Project Officer (PO), Dr. Pouria Sayyad Khodashenas, summarizing the actions carried out and the next action items.

Talk to MASTEAM-MATT students


The Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya (UPC), Barcelona, Spain organizes in a weekly basis, different activities like talks, technical visits, etc. for the EETAC Master’s degrees Applied Telecom and Engineering Management (MASTEAM) and Advanced Telecommunications Technologies (MATT) students. Those activities usually invite experienced people from companies, research centers or institutions and allow the students to maintain contact with professionals with experience.

In this context, one of the members of the Caramel project Dr. Pouria Sayyad Khodashenas (@p_khodashenas on Twitter) H2020 CARAMEL Project Coordinator gave a talk to UPC students, he shared information about the Next-Generation Mobility: Protecting the new generation of cars from cybercriminals. On such talk, the EU-funded CARAMEL project was introduced as well its three main pillars:

a) Mobility

b) Telecommunications

c) E-charge.


Theme: Elation by Kaira.